口译技能要点 称谓口译 谚语口译和数字口译

发布于:2021-09-25 10:16:20

口译技能要点 Interpreting Skills in Focus -,称谓口译 Interpreting Terms of Address and Titles 在外事接待活动中,议员首先面临的一道难题是称 谓的翻译。称谓代表了一个人的职位,职衔或学衔, 体现了一个人的资历和地位。称谓的误译不仅是对 有关人员的不尊重,而且也会产生种种不良的后果。 称谓的准确翻译其关键在于对有关人员的身份及其 称谓的表达是否有一个正确的理解,尤其是对称谓 语地认识。一个称谓语很可能表示多种身份,例如, 英语的头衔语是president.,译成汉语是可视具体情 况分别译作共和国的总统,国家主席,大学的校长, 学院的院长,

学会或协会的会长或主席,公司的总裁或董事长等 等。 一般说来,各类机构或组织的首长其汉语称谓译成 汉语时虽可套用通用的词head ,但从比较严格的 意义上看,应使用特定的,规范的称谓语〉例如 校长(大学):President of Beijing University 校长(中小学):Principal/headmaster of Donghai Middle School 院长(大学下属):Dean of the Graduate School 系主任(大学学院下属):Chair /Chairman of the English Department 会长/主席(学/协会):President of the Student Union, Shanghai University 厂长(企业):Director of the Machine Tools

Manufacturing Plant 院长(医院): Director of Huadong Hospital 主任(中心):Director of the Business center 主任(行政):Director of Foreign Affairs Office 行长(银行):President of the Bank for International Settlements 董事长(企业):Chairman of the Board of Directors 董事长(学校):Chairman of the Board of Trustees 首席长官的汉语称谓常以“总……”表示,而表示 首席长官的英语称谓语则常带有chief,general, head, managing这类词,因此当翻译冠以“总” 字的头衔时,须尊选英语头衔的表达*惯:

总书记general secretary 总工程师chief engineer 总会计师chief accountant 总建筑师chief architect 总编辑chief editor; editor-in-chief; managing editor 总出纳chief cashier; general cashier 总裁判chief referee 总经理general manager; managing director; executive head 总代理general agent 总教练head coach 总导演head director 总干事secretary-general; commissioner

总指挥commander-in-chief; generalissimo 总领事consul-general 总监chief inspector; inspector-general; chief impresario 总厨head cook; chef 有些部门或机构的首长或主管的英译,可以一些通 用的头衔词表示,例如下列机构的负责人可以用 director,head或chief来表示 司(部署)department 厅(省属)department 署(省属)office(行署为administrative office ) 局bureau 所institute 处division

科section 股section 室office 教研室program /section 例:局长director of the bureau, head of the bureau, bureau chief 国务院the State Council属下的部分ministry,所以 部长叫做minister。另外,公署专员叫做 commissioner,其办事机构叫做“专员公署”, 英语为prefectural commissioner’s office。 汉语中表示副职的头衔一般都冠以“副”字,英译 时需视词语的固定搭配或表达*惯等情况,可选择 vice, associate, assistant, deputy等词。 相对而言, vice使用面较广,例如:

科section 股section 室office 教研室program /section 例:局长director of the bureau, head of the bureau, bureau chief 国务院the State Council属下的部分ministry,所以 部长叫做minister。另外,公署专员叫做 commissioner,其办事机构叫做“专员公署”, 英语为prefectural commissioner’s office。 汉语中表示副职的头衔一般都冠以“副”字,英译 时需视词语的固定搭配或表达*惯等情况,可选择 vice, associate, assistant, deputy等词。 相对而言, vice使用面较广,例如:

副总统(或大学副校长等)vice president ) 副主席(或系副主任等)vice chairman 副总理 vice premier 副部长vice minister 副省长vice governor 副市长vice mayor 副领事vice consul 副校长(中小学)vice principal 行政职务的复职头衔与学术头衔的“副”职称往往 用不同的词表达,最为常见的英语词是associate, 例如: 副教授associate professor 副研究员associate research fellow 副主编associate managing editor

副总统(或大学副校长等)vice president ) 副主席(或系副主任等)vice chairman 副总理 vice premier 副部长vice minister 副省长vice governor 副市长vice mayor 副领事vice consul 副校长(中小学)vice principal 行政职务的复职头衔与学术头衔的“副”职称往往 用不同的词表达,最为常见的英语词是associate, 例如: 副教授associate professor 副研究员associate research fellow 副主编associate managing editor

副总统(或大学副校长等)vice president ) 副主席(或系副主任等)vice chairman 副总理 vice premier 副部长vice minister 副省长vice governor 副市长vice mayor 副领事vice consul 副校长(中小学)vice principal 行政职务的复职头衔与学术头衔的“副”职称往往 用不同的词表达,最为常见的英语词是associate, 例如: 副教授associate professor 副研究员associate research fellow 副主编associate managing editor

副总统(或大学副校长等)vice president ) 副主席(或系副主任等)vice chairman 副总理 vice premier 副部长vice minister 副省长vice governor 副市长vice mayor 副领事vice consul 副校长(中小学)vice principal 行政职务的复职头衔与学术头衔的“副”职称往往 用不同的词表达,最为常见的英语词是associate, 例如: 副教授associate professor 副研究员associate research fellow 副主编associate managing editor

副编审associate senior editor 副审判长associate judge 副研究馆员 associate research fellow of…(e.g., library science) 副译审 associate senior translator 副主任医师associate senior doctor 当然,有些英语职位头衔, 如,manager和 headmaster 其副职头衔可冠以assistant, 例如: 副总经理assistant/deputy general manager, assistant/ deputy managing director 大堂副理(宾馆)assistant headmaster 以director 表示职位的副职常以deputy director 表 示. 此外,secretary,mayor, dean 等头衔的副职也 可冠以deputy, 例如:

副秘书长deputy scretary-general 副书记 deputy secretary 副市长deputy mayor 副院长 deputy dean 学术头衔系列除了含有“正”、“副”级别的高级 职称和中级职称外,还以初级职称如“ 助理“常 用”assistant来表示,例如: 助理教授assistant professor 助理工程师 assistant research fellow 助理编辑assistant editor 助理官员assistant research fellow of …(e.g., library science) 助理教练assistant coach 助理农艺师assistant agronomist

还有一些行业职称头衔,其高级职称不用“正”或 “副表示,而直接用“高级”来表示,我们可以用 senior来称呼,例如: 高级编辑senior editor 高级工程师senior engineer 高级记者senior reporter 高级讲师senior lecturer 高级教师senior teacher 高级农艺师senior agronomist 在一些行业的职称或职务系列中,最高级别的职位 冠以“首席”一词,英语常用chief来表示。 首席执行官chief executive officer(CEO) 首席法官chief judge 首席顾问chief advisor

首席检察官chief inspector/prosecutor 首席仲裁员chief arbitrator 首席监事chief supervisor 首席播音员chief announcer/broadcaster 首席代表chief representative 首席记者chief correspondent 除了用“总”、“高级”、“首席”等词语来表示 一些机构或行业的最高级职务以外,还有一些高级 职务则使用带“长”字的头衔,例如: 检察长procurator-general 审判长presiding judge; chief judge;chief of judges 护士长head nurse 秘书长secretary-general 参谋长chief of staff

厨师长head cook,chef 有些头衔含诸如“代理”“常务”“执行”“名誉” 这类称谓语,例如 代理市长,代理经理,代理主任 常务理事,常务副校长 执行主席,执行主任,执行秘书 名誉校长,名誉会长 一般来说,“代理”可译作acting,例如: 代理市长acting mayor 代理总理acting premier 代理主任acting director “常务”可以managing表示,例如: 常务理事managing director

常务副校长managing vice president(亦可译作 first vice president) “执行”可译作executive,例如: 执行主任executive director 执行秘书executive secretary 执行主席 executive chairman(也可译作presiding chairman) “名誉” 译为honorary,例如: 名誉校长honorary president/principal 名誉主席/会长honorary chairman/president(也可 用emeritus表示,如emeritus chairman/president) 有些职称或职务带有“主任”、“主治”“特级”、 “特派”、“特约”等头衔,英译不尽相同,例如: 主任编辑associate senior editor

主任秘书chief secretary 主任医师senior doctor 主任护师 senior nurse 主治医师attending/chief doctor; physician; consultant 特级教师special-grade senior teacher 特派记者accredited correspondent 特派员/专员commissioner 特约编辑 contributing editor 特约记者special correspondent 许多职称、职务的头衔称谓其英语表达法难以归类, 需要日积月累,逐步登陆在自己的称谓语料库中。 以下所列举是其中的一部分:

办公室主任office manager(如“校长办公室主 任”manager of president’s office) 财务主任treasurer 车间主任workshop manager/director 编审senior editor 博导(博士生导师)doctoral student supervisor 研究生导师graduate student tutor 客座教授visiting professor 院士academician 译审senior translator 村长village head 领班captain;foreman;gaffer 经纪人broker 税务员tax collector

研究馆员research fellow of …(如“图书馆研究 馆员”research fellow of library science) 股票交易员stock dealer 红马夹(stock exchanger ) floor broker 业务经理service/business/operation manager 住院医生resident (doctor); registra 国际大师international master 注册会计师chartered/certified public accountant; registered/incorporated accountant 我国有一些常见的荣誉称号(honorary title)在许多 英语国家没有对应的表达语,现列举部分英译供参 考: 标兵pacemaker 学*标兵student pacemaker; model student

劳动模范model worker 模范教师model teacher 优秀教师excellent teacher 优秀员工outstanding employee; employee of the monthly/year 青年标兵model youth/youth pacemaker 青年突击手youth shock worker 三好学生 “triple-A”outstanding student 三八妇女红旗手 “March 8th Red Banner” outstanding woman pacemaker

二、谚语口译 Interpreting proverbs 二、谚语口译 谚语作为一种以简单通俗的语言来表达深刻道理的 语句,常为人们所引用。在国际交往中,人们喜欢 引用本国或外国的谚语。例如,美国前总统里根 1984年4月访华时充满深情地说:since we arrived the graciousness with which we have been received has been heartwarming. A Chinese proverb best describes my feeling: “when the visitor arrives, it is as if returning home.” (宾至如 归)。同年11月访华的挪威首相Willoch 在欢迎宴 席上说到: Although I have tried to follow the developments in your country from afar,

I am very conscious of the truth of the Chinese proverb “seeing is believing”. (眼见为实/百闻不 如一见)。 谚语的准确转译是口译人员必须面对的一道难题。 好在许多谚语流传甚广,早已为我们所熟知。例如, 英语谚语 A good beginning is half the battle/well begun is half done,.许多英语学*者多知道其含义 及汉语译文,即“一个良好的开端是成功的一半”。 恐怕不会有人将其译为“一个良好的开端是半场战 斗”吧? 因吃,许多谚语口译并非是一道不可逾越的* 议员一方面要驱除恐惧心理,另一方面要正视困难。 事实上,世界各语种中有相当数量的谚语有着相似 的语言形式和含义。

而且,千百年来各国之间或多或少的文化交流,往 往会是一个民族的谚语跨越地理疆界,广为流传于 其他民族。久而久之,这些生命力强盛的外来谚语 有的竟然反宾为主,,成了本族语中最富活力的语 句。 谚语的口译大致可分为3种类型,第一种是 “形同意合”的口译,第二种是“形似意合”,第 三种是“形异意和”。下面分别介绍了这3种谚语 英语和汉语两种语言中都有许多“形”同“意”合 的谚语。例如,英语的A full into the pit, a gain in your wit.与汉语的“吃一堑,长一智”,其形其意 都极为吻合。两种语言中存在着形意相合的谚语, 这对译员来说,无疑是可喜可悲的。请看以下各例 谚语的英汉对照,无论是选词还是表意,英汉语都 极为相*:

Facts speak louder than words 事实胜于雄辩 Money can’t buy time 寸金难买寸光阴 谚语 Failure is the mother of success 失败乃成功之母 To teach is to learn 教学相长 Like father,like son,有其父,必有其子 Pride goes before a fall 骄者必败 Fish in troubled waters 混水摸鱼 Business is business 公事公办 The style is the man 文如其人 More haste,less speed 欲速则不达 Great minds think alike 英雄所见略同 Misfortunes never come alone 祸不单行 Hedges have eyes ,walls have ears 隔离有眼,隔 墙有耳

Man proposes,god disposes 谋势在人,成事在天 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder 情人眼里出西 施 Time and tide wait for no man 时不我待/水月无情 A young ildler,an old beggar 少壮不努力,老大徒 伤悲 Health is better than wealth 家有万贯财,不如一 身健 Out of office,out of danger 无官一身轻 In time of peace prepare for war 居安当思危 The tongue cuts the throat 祸从口出/言多必失 Out of sight,out of mind /Far from eye,far from heart 眼不见为净

All shall be well,Jack shall have Jill 有情人终成眷 属 Friend must part 聚散合离总有时/天下无不散的宴 席。 The remembrance of the past is the teacher of the future .前事不忘,后事之师/前车之覆,后车之 鉴

Kill two birds with one stone 一箭双雕/一食双鸟 Speak of the devil (and he will appear) 说到曹操。 曹操到 A new broom sweeps clean 新官上任三把火 Beat the dog before the lion 杀鸡儆猴 Let sleeping dogs lie 勿打草惊蛇 Teach fish to swim 班门弄斧 A word spoken is past recalling 一言既出,驷马难 追

Once bitten ,twice shy 一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳 Birds of a feather flock together 物以类聚,人以 群分 In for a penny,in for a pound 一不做,而不休 There is no smoke without fire 无风不起浪 Have a card up one’s sleeve 胸有成竹 His bark is worse than his bite 有口无心 Put the cart before the horse 本末倒置 Fine feathers make fine birds 佛要金装,人要衣 装 As a man sows,so he shall reap 种瓜得瓜,种豆 得豆 Much will have more 得寸进尺 The sauce is better than the fish 喧宾夺主

He cries wine and sells vinegar 挂羊头,卖狗肉 Good wine needs no bush 酒香不怕巷子深 Every potter praises his pot 王婆卖瓜,自卖自夸 The pupil outdoes the master 青出于蓝胜于蓝 There are plenty of fish in the sea 天涯何处无芳 草 Diamond cut diamond 强中更有强中手 He takes a spear to kill a fly 杀鸡用牛刀 Gifts blind the eyes 拿了手短,吃了嘴软。 Don’t bite the hand that feeds you 不要恩将仇报。 Dogs bite in every country 天下乌鸦一般黑。 Peace on the forehead and war in the mind 口蜜 腹剑。

Better an open enemy than a false friend 明枪易 躲,暗箭难防。 Do one thing under cover of another 明修栈道, 暗渡陈仓。 The spirit is willing ,but the flesh is weak心有余而 力不足。 Little strokes fell great oaks 滴水穿石/只要功夫深, 铁杵磨成针。 Judge not a book by its cover 人不可貌相,海水 不可斗量。 All roads lead to Rome/All rivers run into the sea 殊途同归。 A straight foot is not a afraid of a cooked shoe.身 正不怕影子斜。

A sparrow cannot understand the ambition of a swan 燕雀安知鸿鹄之志。 The same knife cuts bread and fingers水能载舟, 已能覆舟。 It is better to die than to live when life is a disgrace/lizard than the tail of a lion 宁为鸡首,无 为牛后。 It is better to die than to live when life is a disgrace./better die with honor than live with shame. 宁为玉碎,不为瓦全。

A clear conscience is a sure card. 为人不做亏心 事,半夜不怕鬼敲门。 A bad conscience is a snake in one’s heart. 做贼 心虚。 All your swans are geese. 事与愿违。 Justice has long arms. 天网恢恢,疏而不漏。 Late fruit keeps well. 大器晚成。 Take things as they come. 既来之,则安之。 A hedge between keeps friendship green. 君子之 交淡如水。 Rest breeds rust.生命在于运动。 Names are debts. 树大招风。 Common fame is a liar. 盛名之下,其实难副。

Many kiss the baby for the nurse’s sake. 醉翁之 意不在酒。 Nothing venture, nothing have. 不入虎穴,焉得虎 子。 Do in Rome as the Romans do.入乡随俗。 Things done cannot be undone.木已成舟,/覆水 难收。 True blue will never stain.真金不怕火炼。 Everybody’s business is nobody’s business. 三个 和尚没水喝。 The moon is not seen when the sun shines. 小巫 见大巫。 Penny wise and pound foolish. 因小失大。

He knows most who speaks least./ still water runs deep. 大智若愚。 As you make the bed, so you must lie in it.自食其 果。 The pot calls the kettle black.五十步笑百步。 Short pleasure, long lament. 一失足成千古恨。 Don’t count the chicken before they are hatched. 请勿盲目乐观。 What is done by night appears by day. 若要人不 知,除非己莫为。 Danger is next neighbor to security. 塞翁失马,安 知非福? Misfortune might be a blessing in disguise. 祸兮 福所倚,福兮祸所伏。

What we lose in hake we shall have in herring. 失 之东隅,收之桑榆。 Stick together through thick and thin. 有福同享, 有祸同当。/患难与共,/风雨同舟。 Save your breath to cool your porridge. 各人自扫 门前雪,莫管他人瓦上霜。 A watched pot never boils. 心急吃不了热豆腐。/ 有意栽花花不开,无心插柳柳成荫。 A leopard cannot change its spots. /you cannot make a crab walk straight. 江山易改,本性难移。 Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. 顺 其自然/随遇而安。/车到山前必有路。 Accidents will happen./every tide has its ebb. 天 有不测之风云,人有旦夕之祸福。

Even homer sometimes nods. /the best horse stubles. 智者千虑,必有一失。 Rome was not built in a day. 冰冻三尺,非一日之 寒。/修炼成仙,非一日之功。 The shepherd would rather lose the wool than the sheep. 留着青山在,不怕没柴烧。 A little leak will sink a great ship./ a stitch in time saves nine. 小洞不补,大洞吃苦。/亡羊补牢。

当然,掌握了以上3种谚语的翻译方法并不等于找 到了一把可以翻译所有谚语的万能钥匙。有些谚语 的翻译需要译员“转形解意”,而有些谚语的翻译 宜“以不变应万变”,以保其“原汁原味”。例如: Silence is golden. 沉默是金。 A rolling stone gathers no moss. 滚石不生苔。 One swallow does not make a summer. 一燕不成 夏。 All is not gold that glitters. 闪闪发光物,并非皆金 子。 A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 双鸟在 林,不如一鸟在手。 A bird is known by its note and a man by his talk. 闻蹄知鸟,闻言知人。

除了谚语之外,成语、*语、歇后语、词句等句的 临场翻译也是译员颇感棘手的问题。以上所述的有 关谚语的口译方法有“举一反三”之意。一般说来, 译员在充分理解有关词语所含寓意的情况下,可采 用意译或半意译的方法,只需将词语的意思传译过 去即可。至于歇后语的口译,例如流传甚广的“泥 菩萨过河—自身难保’”、“小葱拌豆腐—一清二 白“、“猪八戒照镜子--里外不是人”、“张飞穿 针眼—大眼瞪小眼”、“和尚打伞—无发(发)无 天”、“兔子尾巴—长不了”等歇后语, 一般不 必将歇后语的前后两部分无一遗漏地都译成英语, 以免给英语听众带来困惑。口译时,原则上只需翻 译歇后语所表达的主要意思,即歇后语中后半局的 内容。

三、引语口译 经常为政府首脑、高级官员、文化人士、社会 三、引语口译 名流做口译的议员都有相同的体会,即这些人员在 接待或访问时常常在演讲中引用些名家名言、经典 诗句,以表达自己的感情、观点和立场,或赞颂对 方国的文化传统。 例如, 1999年10月22时任中华人民共和国主席的 江泽民在英国剑桥大学发表演讲时说道:“中国民 族历来尊重人的尊严和价值。还在遥远的古代,我 们的先人就已提出‘民为贵’的思想,认为‘天生 万物,唯人为贵’(man is the most valuable among all the things that heaven fosters.), 一切 社会的发展和进步,都取决于人的发展和进步,取 决于人的尊严的维护和价值的发挥。”

江主席在结束讲话时引用了孔子的一句话:“中国 两千五百五十年前诞生的杰出教育家、思想家孔子 说过:‘逝者如斯夫!不舍昼夜。’(the passage of time is just like the flow of water, which goes on day and night.)时光流逝不可逆 转。” 时任中华人民共和国国务院总理的朱镕基在1999 年春访美时,在一次记者招待会上回答某个记者提 出的有关“人权”问题时也引用了“民为贵,社稷 次之,君为轻” (the people are the most important element in a state; next are the gods of land and grain; least is the ruler himself.)这句古话, 以表明中国政府十分重视人权问题。

国务院总理温家宝在2004年6月28日举行的“和* 共处五项原则创利50周年纪念大会”上作了精彩 的演讲,温总理在谈到人类文明多样性时引用了中 国古代思想家孔子的话:“万物并育而不相害,道 并行而不相悖。”(all living creatures grow together without harming one another; ways run parallel without interfering with one another.) 2005年6月26日温总理在第六届亚欧财长会议开幕 式上讲话时说到:“中国有句古话:‘相知无远*, 万里尚为邻。’(distance cannot separate true friends who feel so close even when they are thousands of miles apart.) 中国与亚洲各国山水相 连,共同铸就了灿烂的亚洲文明;古老而美丽的 ‘丝绸之路’,谱写了中欧千年往来的美好篇章。”

又如,美国前总统里根1984年4月访华时在欢迎宴 席上引用了《易经》中的一句话,他说道:And as a saying from The Book of Changes goes, “if two people are of the same mind, their sharpness can cut through metal.”(二人同心,其利断金。) 再如,美国前总统克林顿1998年6月下旬访华是在 人民大会堂的国宴上致辞时引用了孟子的一句话, 他说道: In so many different ways, we are upholding the teachings of Mencius, who said: “a good citizen in one community will befriend the other citizens of the community; a good citizen of the world will befriend the other citizens of the world.”(一乡之善士斯有一乡之善士,天下之善士 斯有天下之善士。)

安危相易,祸福相生,缓急相争,聚散相承Safety and danger alternate with each other .Misfortune and fortune generate each other.Slowness and promptness follow each other .Gathering and scattering complement each other 饱而知人之饥,温而知人之寒,逸而知人之劳 When full,remember someone else is suffering hunger;when warm,remember someone else is suffering cold;when in ease,remember someone else is suffering fatigue

彼求之而后得,为之而后成,积之而后高,尽之而 后圣。故圣人也者,人之所积也。Man seeks before gains,toils before succeeds,accumulates before increases,and exhausts his efforts before he becomes a sage .Thus ,a sage grows out of accumulation 博学之,审问之,慎思之,明辩之,笃行之。 Learn extensively,inquire thoroughly ,ponder prudently ,discriminate clearly ,and practice diligently 不登高山,不知天之高也,不临深渊,不知地之厚 也。One can never be aware of the height of the sky or the depth of the earth ,if he does not climb up a high mountain or look down into a deep abyss.

不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之,知 之不若行之。学至于行之而止矣。It is better to hear something than not to hear it :still better to see it than to hear it;still better to know it than to see it;still better to practice it than to know it .Learning will not stop untill it is put into practice 不义而富且贵,于我如浮云。Whealth and rank attained through immoral means are as empty as floating clouds to me 不知则问,不能则学,虽能避让,然后为德。It makes a moral man to ask for what he doesn’t know,to learn what he can’t do ,and do restrain himself from what he is capable of .

诚既勇兮又以武,终刚强兮不可凌Brave and courageous you are the most .Till your death you stick to your post . 大道之兴业,天下为公。A public spirit will rule all under the heaven when the great Way prevails 大江东去,浪淘尽,千古风流人物The endless river flows eastward,with its huge waves,gone are all those gallant heroes of bygone years

大成若缺,其用大弊;大赢若冲,其用不穷。大直 若屈,大巧若拙, 大辩若讷。What is most perfect seems to have something missing;yet its use is unimpaired. What is most full seems empty; yet its use will never fail. What is most straight appears crooked; what is most skilled appears clumsy; and what is most eloquent appears incoherent. 丹青不知老将至,复归于我如浮云。Absorbed in painting, you know not old age is coming; indeed, to me wealth and rank are like clouds drifting away.

但愿人长久,千里共婵娟。We wish each other a long life so as to share the beauty of this graceful moonlight, even though we are miles apart. 道可道,非常道;名可名,非常名。 无名, 天地 之始;有名,万物之母。The Way that can be told of is not an Unvarying Way; the names that can be named are not unvarying names. It was the nameless that Heaven and the Earth sprang from; it was the named that nurtured everything between the Heaven and the Earth. 道在天地之间,其大无外,其小无内。The way fills up the universe. For its greatness, nothing lies outside it; for its smallness, nothing lies within it.

得天之道,其事若自然;失天之道,虽立不安。 Following the natural law, everything will go on smoothly. Disobeying it, even rule established will be upset. 地势坤,君子以厚德载物。As the Earth’s capacity is to hold, so must a gentleman constantly cultivate virtue in himself to shoulder the world. 独在异乡为异客,每逢佳节倍思亲。A lonely stranger in a strange land I am cast, I miss my family all the more on every festive day. 笃信好学,守死善道。Stick to the truth you believe, broaden your knowledge about it, and be ready to die for its realization.

多知而无亲,博学而无方,好多而无定者,君子不 与。The gentleman does not agree with those who know too much but are close to nothing, or learn too broadly but without direction, or love too many but without fixed ones. 二人同心,其利断金。If two people are of the same mind, their sharpness can cut through metal. 法不阿贵,绳不挠曲。法之所加,智者弗能辞。勇 者弗能争,刑过不避大臣,赏善不逸匹夫。The law does not favor the noble, as an ink line does not yield to the crooked wood. Wherever the law applies, the wise cannot evade, nor can the brave defy. Punishment applies to a minister, as rewards apply to a common man.

富贵不能淫,贫贱不能移,威武不能屈,此之谓大 丈夫。It is a true great man whom no money and rank can confuse, no poverty and hardship can shake, and no power and force can suffocate. 公生明,偏生暗。Impartiality produces clarity and partiality obscurity. 躬自厚而薄责于人。Be strict with yourself and lenient to others . 苟利社稷,死生以之。Life or death, I will do whatever I can for the benefits of the country. 贵以贱为本,高以下为基。The noble takes the humble as its root; the high takes the low as its base.

海不辞水,故能成其大;山不辞土,故能成其高; 明主不厌人,故能成其众;土不厌学,故能成其圣。 A sea is vast, as it rejects no water. A mountain is high, as it rejects no rocks. A wise ruler gathers more people, as he is not tired of meeting people. A scholar becomes a sage, as he is not tired of learning. 海内存知己,天涯若比邻。A bosom friend afar brings distance near. 含抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于垒土;千里 之行,始于足下。A huge tree that fills one’s arms grows from a tiny seedling; a nine-storied tower rises from a heap of earth; a thousand-li journey starts with the first step.

祸兮,福之所倚;福兮,祸之所伏。Misfortune generates happiness, and happiness breeds misfortune. 见利不亏其义,见死不更其守。Do not foget rightousness in face of profits, nor alter the moral principles in face of death. 见贤思齐焉,见不贤而内自省也。When seeing a man of virtue, try to become his equal; when seeing a man without virtue, examine yourself not to have the same defects. 江海所以能为百谷王者,以其善下之。Rivers and seas can become the kings of valleys because they excel in taking the lower positions.

江山如此多娇,引无数英雄竞折腰。This land is so beautiful that is has made countless heroes bow in homage. 节其流,开其源,而时斟酌焉。Cut down the expenditure, open up additional resources, and constantly check your finance to make a balance. 举头望明月,低头思故乡。Raising my head, I see the moon so bright, withdrawing my eyes my nostalgia comes around. 俱往矣,数风流人物,还看今朝。 All are past and gone; we look to this age for truly great men. 君子成人之美,不成人之恶。A man of virtue helps never feels achieve their moral perfection but not their evil conduct.

君子独立不渐于影,独寝不惭于魂。 A righteous man never feels ashamed to face his shadow when standing alone and to face his soul when sleeping alone. 君子苟能无义利害义,则耻辱亦无由至矣。If a gentleman can be free from temptation of profit at the cost of justice, no shame or disgrace will ever befall him. 君子谋道不谋食, 忧道不忧贫。A righteous man seeks truth, not wealth, and worries about truth, not about dearth.

君子食无求饱,居无求安, 敏于事而谨于言,就 有道而正焉,可谓好学也矣。 A gentleman seeks neither a full belly nor a comfortable home. Instead, he is quick in action and cautious in speech. He follows those of virtue in order to rectify himself. Such a man may indeed be considered fond of learning. 君子之交淡如水,小人之交赶如醴。君子淡以亲, 小人甘以绝。 The friendship between men of virtue is light like water, yet richly affectionate; the friendship between men without virtue is sweet like wine, yet easily broken.

可贵可贱也,可富可贫也,可杀而不可使为奸也。 Noble or humble, rich or poor, a gentleman would rather be killed than be persuaded to do evils. 克勤于邦,克俭于家. Work diligently for the country and frugally for the family. 劳而步伐,有功而不德,厚之志也。He is the modest man of all the modest who toils but does not boast it and succeeds but does not credit it. 劳苦之事则争先,饶乐之事则能让。Strive to be the first to bear hardness, and retreat to the last for enjoyment. 老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼。 Respect the aged in one’s own family as well as the aged in other families, and love the young in one’s own family as well as the young in other families .

乐民之乐者,民亦乐其乐;忧民之忧者,民亦忧其 忧。乐以天下,忧以天下,然而不王者未之有 也。 When one rejoices in the joy of his people ,they will also rejoice in his joy; when one grieves at the sorrow of his people, they do the same. He who rules his country is one who occupies himself with concerns for the pleasure and sorrow of all his people. 礼尚往来。往而不来,非礼也;来而不往,亦非礼 也。Propriety demands reciprocity. It is not propriety to give but not to receive, or vice versa. 两情若是长久时,又岂在朝朝暮暮。If love between both sides can last for aye, why need they stay together night and day?

令则行,禁则止。Act when ordered, and stop when prohibited. 路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。The way ahead is long and has no ending; yet high and low I’ll search with my will unbending. 乱则国危,治则国安。Disorder brings peril to a country, while order brings peace to it. 民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻。The people are the most important element in a state; next are the gods of land and grain; least is the ruler himself. 敏而好学,不耻下问。Quick-minded and eager to learn, he is never ashamed to consult his inferiors.

民而动,晦而休,无日以怠。Work as day breaks, and rest as night falls; never will a day slip away without any accomplishment. 朴素而天下莫能与之争美。Nothing in the world excels in beauty as simplicity does. 千丈之堤,以蝼蚁之穴溃;百尺之室,以突隙之烟 焚。A long dike will collapse because of an anthole in it; a tall building will be burned down because of a spark from a chimney’s chink. 锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。If you carve but give up half way, even a decayed piece of wood will not break; it you carve without a break, even metal and stone can be engraved.

曲则全,枉则直;洼则盈,敝则新;少则得,多则 惑。To be part is to be whole; to be bent is to be straight; to be hollow is to be filled; to be dilapidated is to renewed; to have less is to gain; to have more is to be confused. 人惰而侈则穷,力而俭则富。Laziness and extravagance make a poor man, while diligence and frugality a rich man. 人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺,此事古难全。Men have sorrow and joy; they part and meet again. The moon dims or shines; it waxes or wanes. Nothing is perfect, not even in the olden days. 人之于文学也,犹玉之于琢磨也。Learning and culture are to a man what polishing and grinding are to jade.

三人行,必有我师焉。择其善者而从之,其不善者 而改之。Among any three men walking, I will find something to learn for sure. Their good qualities are to be followed, and their shortcomings are be be avoided. 善学者,假人之长以补其短。He who is keen in learning takes other people’s fortes to make up his own defects. 善学者尽其理,善行者究其难。He who is good at learning exhausts the pinciples. He who is good at practicing seeks to solve the most difficult problems. 身劳而心安,为之;利少而义多,为之。Do what toils the body but eases the mind, and do what brings less profits but more justice.

石可破也,而不可夺坚;丹可磨也,而不可夺赤。 A stone may be crushed, but not to be deprieved of its hardness; a cinnabar may be grounded to pieces but not to be deprived of its redness. 土不可以弘毅,任重而道远。仁以为己任,不亦重 乎?死而后已,不亦远乎?an educated gentleman cannot but be resolute and broadminded, for he has taken up a heavy responsibility and a long course. Is it not a heavy responsibility, which is to practice benevolence? Is it not a long course, which will end only with his death?

士之为人,当理不避其难,临患忘利,遗生行义, 视死如归。A moral intellectual is one who escapes no danger in face of truth, discards personal interests in front of disaster, practices righteousness at the expense of life, and looks upon death as going home. 逝者如斯夫!不舍昼夜。The passage of time is just like the flow of water, which goes on day and night.

水火有气而无生,草木有生而无知,禽兽有知而无 义;人有气、有生、有知,亦且有义,故最为天下 贵也。Fire and water possess a spirit but no life, grass and trees possess a life but no awareness, birds and animals posses awareness but no sense of morality. Only humans possess spirit, life, awareness, as well as the sense of morality, hence the noblest beings in the world. 水之积也不厚则其负大舟也无力;风之积也不厚, 则其负大翼也无力。 Without sufficient depth, no water can float large boats. Without sufficient density, no wind can support large birds. 顺天者昌,逆天者亡。Those who follow the Heaven’s law will flourish and those who go against it will perish.

虽有佳肴,弗食不知其旨也;虽有至道,弗学不知 其善也。事故学然后知不足,教然后知困。知不足, 然后能自反也;知困,然后能自强也。故曰教学相 长也。Delicious as may the food be ,one never knows its taste except eating it;perfect as may the course be ,one never knows its goodness except learning it.Thus it is after learning that one knows his dificiency,and after teaching one discovers his confusion .Knowing of his dificiency stimulates him into selfexamintaion ;and discovery of his confusion leads hims to selfimproving.That’s why we say teaching and learning encourage each other

天道亏盈而益谦,地道变盈而流谦,人道恶盈而好 谦。It is the way of Heave to lessen the full to complement the humble ,and the way of Earth to change the full to replenish the humble ,and the way of Man to hate the full to cherish the humble 天生万物,唯人为贵。Man is the most valuable among all the things that heaven fosters 天生我才必有用 Heaven has endowed me with talents for eventual use 天时不如地利,地利不如人和 Opportunities vouchsafed by Heaven are outmatched by terrestrial advantages,which in turn are outmatched by the harmony among people

天行健,君子以自强不息As Heaven’s movement is very vigorous,so must a gentleman ceaselessly strive along 听不审不聪,不审不聪则缪;视不察不明,不察不 明则过;虑不得不知,不得不知则昏 Listening without attention is not hearing ;then falsehood folows.looking without examination is not seeing ;then errors follow .Considerating without intention is not knowing ;then confusion follows 听其言必责其用,观其行必求其功。Words are to be judged from their function ;and deeds are to be observed from their effects

万物并育而不相害,道并行而不相悖 All living creatures grow together without harming one another ;ways run parallel without interfering with one another 温故而知新,可以为师矣.he who is able to reach new understanding by reviewing the old knowledge is qualified to be a teacher. 无为其所不为,无欲其所不欲.don’t do what should not be done; don’t desire what should not be desired.

物格而后知至,知至而后意诚;意诚而后心正,心 正而后身修;身修而后家齐,家齐而后治国,国治 而后天下*。Tings investigated, genuine knowledge acquired; genuine knowledge acquired, thoughts purified; thoughts purified, hearts rectified; hearts rectified, personalities cultivated; personalities cultivated, families regulated; families regulated, the states well governed; the states well governed, the whole world will be in peace and tranquility. 先义而后利者荣,先利而后义者辱 he who puts righteousness before profits is respectable; he who put profits before righteousness is discreditable.

吾日三省吾身;为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信 乎?传而不*乎?every day I examine myself time and again: have I been unfaithful in giving counsels to others ? have I been insincere in getting along with my friends? Have I failed to renew what I have been taught? 相见时难别亦难. It is unbearable to meet as well as to depart. 相知无远*,万里尚为邻.distance cannot separate true friends who feel so close even when they are thousands of miles apart.

小人以小善为无意而弗为也,以小恶为无伤而弗去 也,故恶积而不可掩,罪过而不可解. A mean man thinks that small virtues are useless and does not practice them, and small vices are harmless and does not abandon them. Hence his vices accumulate till they can not be covered, and his guilt becomes great till it can not be freed from. 信言不美,善者不辩true words need not be finesounding; the good man does not prove by argument.

学不可以已。青取之于蓝,而轻于蓝;冰,水为之, 而寒于水。君子博学而日参省乎已,则知名而行无 过矣。There is never an end to learning. The dye extracted from the indigo is bluder than the plant;so is the ice colder than the water. By broadly learning and constantly examining himself every day, the gentleman sharpens his awareness and makes fewer mistakes. 学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。Learning without thinking leads to confusion: thinking without learning ends in danger. 学而不厌,诲人不倦。 Never be contented with your study. Never be impatient with your teaching.

学如逆水行舟,不*则退 learning is like rowing upstream: not to advance is to drop back. 言*而指远者,善言也;守约而施博者,善道也。 It is a good speech that talks near but signifies far; it is a good way that operates restrictedly but applies widely. 言之无文,形而不远。 Words without content will not reach far and wide. 一尺之锤,日取其半,万世不竭. Cutting off a foot-long club by half every day will not exhaust it any day. 一手独拍,虽疾无声。Clapping with one hand, however fast, makes no sound.

一乡之善士斯友一乡之善士,天下之善士斯友天下 之善士。 A good citizen in one community will befriend the other citizens of the community; a good citizen of the world will befriend the other citizens of the world. 有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎。It is such a delight to have friends coming from afar. 于安思危,于达思穷,于得思丧。In peace, think of danger; in prosperity, think of poverty; in gain, think of loss. 玉不琢,不成器。人不学,不知道。As a jade without chiseling will not become a useful object, a man without learning will not know the Way.

欲穷千里目,更上一层楼。We widen our views three hundred miles by ascending one flight of stairs./exhausting my eyes to a thousand li further, I am ascending one more story of the tower. 在天愿做比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。In heaven let us be two birds flying ever together, and on earth two trees with branches interlocked forever. 知彼知己,百战不殆;不知彼而知己,一胜一负; 不知彼,不知己,每战必殆。Knowing both the enemy and yourself, you are sure to win every battle; knowing yourself but not the enemy, you’ll have equal chance to win or to lose; knowing neither your enemy nor yourself, you are destined to lose all battles.

欲富尔家,先富尔国。Prosper your country before you prosper your family. 尊严而惮,可以为师;耆艾而信,可以为师;诵说 而不陵不犯,可以为师;知微而论,可以为师;故 师术有四,而博*不与焉。He who is degnified and respectable can be a teacher; he who is aged and trustworthy can be a teacher; he who can explain the classics without excess or distortion can be a teacher; he who knows the profundity and speaks systematically can be a teacher. Hence four kinds of men can make teachers, and a man with merely a broad knowledge is not among them.

知之为知之,,不知为不知,是知也。One’s true knowledge lies in recognizing what one knows and what one does not know. 忠信笃敬,上下同之,天知道也。All people, whether superior or inferior, should be abide by royalty, trustwothiness, sincerity and respectfulness, which is the way of Heaven.

四、数字口译 四、数字口译 Interpreting numbers 英语数字分段法 第一段位: One ten hundred 第二段位: Thousand ten thousand hundred thousand 第三段位:Million ten million hundred million 第四段位:Billion ten billion hundred billion 第五段位:Trillion

汉语数字分段法 第一段位: 个 十 百 千 第二段位: 万 十万 百万 千万 第三段位: 亿 十亿 白亿 千亿 第四段位: 兆(万亿) 如果将英汉数字对照排列,我们可以清楚的体会到 英汉数字分段上的差异给译员带来的困难: 阿拉伯数字 英语 汉语 1 one 一 10 ten 十 100 one hundred 一百 1,000 one thousand 一千 10,000 ten thousand 一万 100,000 one hundred thousand 十万

1,000,000 one million 一 百万 10,000,000 ten million 一 千万 100,000,000 one hundred million 一亿 1,000,000,000 one billion 十亿 10,000,000,000 ten billion 一百亿 100,000,000,000 one hundred billion 一千亿 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion 一兆

英汉数字的不同分段方法是同一组阿拉伯数字具有 不同的读法规则,现已一组13位数字为单位的阿 拉伯数字1234567891234为例,再用英语和汉语 表达时,前者按下标分段记号(,),为单位朗读, 而后者则按上标分段记号(,)为单位朗读。 数字记录的英语下标法以及英语朗读法: 1,234,567,891,234, One trillion Two hundred and thirty-four billion Five hundred and sixty-seven million Eight hundred and ninety-one thousand ‘ Two hundred and thirty-four 数字记录的汉语下标法以及汉语朗读法 1’2345’6789’1234

一兆/亿万 二千三百四十五亿 六千七百八十九万 一千二百三十四 以下是2004年我国人口主要构成情况。请给这些 数字加上分隔符(下标或上标),然后用英语和汉 语分别说出这些数字。 指标年末数比重全国总人口1299880000100%城 镇人口54283000041.8%乡村人口 75705000058.2%男性人口66976000051.5%女性 人口63102000048.5%0—14岁 29749000021.5%15-64岁92184000070.9%60 岁 及以上985700007.6%出口人口 1593000012.29‰(出生率)死亡人口

83200006.42‰(死亡率)净增人口 76100005.87‰(增长率)以下是2004年我国对主 要国家和地区进出口的情况。请给这些数字加上分 隔符(下标或上标),然后用英语和汉语分别说出 这些数字: 国家/地区出口额较上年增长%出口额较上年增长 %日本7350000000023.79940000000027.3韩 国2780000000038.46220000000044.3东盟 4290000000038.76300000000033.1欧盟 10720000000036.97010000000028.8俄罗斯 910000000051.01210000000024.7美国 12490000000035.14470000000031.9

以下是2005年10月18日上海股市的成交综述。请 给这些数字加上分隔符(下标或上标),然后用英 语和汉语分别说出这些数字: 股种成交金额增减成交量增减A股 94969152921808427239221621043522974B股 6834552926271211306651154686合计 95652608211834698450224687563677660以下 是我国大陆地区500强与世界500强前10名2004年 营业收入的比较。请用英语和汉语分别说出这些数 字: 世界500强前10名的营业收入我国大陆500强前10 名营业收入序号公司名称亿元$公司名称亿元¥亿 元$1沃尔马2879.9中石化6342.9766.12英国 石油2850.6国家电网5900.6721.63

挨克森美莩2707.7中石油5712.66904壳排石油 2686.9中国移动1982.9239.55通用汽车 1935.2中国工商银行1940.5234.46戴姆勒-克 莱斯勒1768.9中国人寿1802217.67丰田汽车 1726.2中国电信1784.6215.58福* 1722.3中化集团1686.9203.79通用电气 1528.7宝钢集团1617.6195.410道达尔 1526.1中国建设银行1576.6190.4以下是我国 大陆前16家银行2004年的排名表。 请给这些数字加上分隔符(下标或上标),然后用 英语和汉语分别说出这些数字: 国内排名世界排名银行名称一级资本$111中国银 行34851000000225中国建设银行2353000000332 中国工商银行2017000000437

中国农业银行16670000005105交通银行 57340000006198招商银行28240000007200中信 实业银行23760000008270浦东发展银行 16320000009287中国民生银行 151800000010295中国光大银行 143500000011325兴业银行125800000012360华 夏银行111000000013431北京银行 86100000014437上海银行84400000015485广东 发展银行70700000016693深圳发展银行 40400000-以下是世界上5个主要英语国家的人口 与国土面积情况,请将其译成汉语: The United States has a population of 294,857,000, with a total area of 9,372,610 square kilometers, or 3,618,765 square miles.

Canada, a country with a population of only 31,499,500, has a total area slightly larger than that of the United States, that is, an area of 9,946,140 square kilometers, or 3,851,788 square miles. The United Kingdom, whose population amounts to 60,283,000, has a total land area of 244,820square kilometers, or 94,525 square miles. Australia, with its land-mass of 7,686,850 square kilometers,or 2,967,893 square miles, has a population of 20,168,900. Of five English-speaking countries, New Zealand has the smallest population of only 4,804,200,

with a territory of 268,680 square kilometers, or 103,723 square miles. 以下是2004年我国国民经济和社会发展统计报告 的部分内容,请将其译成英语: 初步核算,2004年全年国内生产总值136 515亿 元,按可比价格计算,比上年增长9.5%。 其中, 第一产业增加值20 744 亿元,增长6.3% ; 第二 产业增加值72 387 亿元,增长11.1%; 第三产业 增加值43384 亿元,增长8.3%。第一、第三产业 对国内生产总值增长的贡献率为9。2%和29。0%, 分别比上年提高5。2个百分点和2.8个百分点。 全国居民消费价格总水*比上年上涨3。9%,其 中服务价格上涨2。3%;商品零售价格上涨2.8%; 工业品出产价格上涨6。1%,

原材料、燃料、动力购进价格上涨11。4%;固定 资产投资价格上涨5。6%; 农产品价格上涨13。 1%。 全年城镇新增就业人员980万人,比预期目标多 80万人。全年有510万下岗人员实现了再就业。年 末城镇登记失业率为4。2%,比上年末下降0.1个 百分点。 年末国家外汇储备达到6 099亿美元,比上年末 增加2067亿美元。人民币汇率继续保持稳定。 全年各项税收收入25718亿元(不包括关税和农 业税),比上年增加5 256亿元,增长25。7%。 全国规模以上工业利润达11 342亿元,比上年增长 38。1%。


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